One of the most abundant proteins in your blood is called glutamine. The role it plays in helping your gut wall to maintain its integrity is as important as the role of sleep on your immune system. It is well known that many of those supplements you might be taking for your gut disorder generally have glutamine in them.
Your gastrointestinal epithelium is the lining that covers the inside of your intestine. This epithelial covering plays an important role in your symptom management as well as in your health as you age. It impacts digestion, absorption and secretion serving as a barrier to diffusion of toxins, allergens and pathogens from the intestinal contents in the surrounding tissues.
Any disruption to this barrier causes noxious substances to enter, causing mucosal inflammation and tissue injury. In fact, with the phenomenal growth in gut health research over the past decade, it is well known that gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), coeliac disease and colitis are a result of the loss of the tight junction integrity in the epithelial lining of the intestine.
As such, there is increased intestinal permeability of toxins across this usually, tight barrier.
The good news is that more recent research suggests that certain nutrients help to preserve this gut-barrier integrity, and are therefore, beneficial in the treatment of various gut health disorders.
One of these nutrients is called glutamine or you may have heard of it as L-glutamine. The terms glutamine and L-glutamine are often used interchangeably in most of the information you will come across in regard to sports and exercise performance. The difference between the two lies within the chemical structure. L-glutamine has a slightly different arrangement of atoms as a molecule, so differs slightly compared to glutamine, but for the purpose of our needs with gut health in relation to menopause in this article, I will use the term glutamine.
When women come onto my 12 week programmes, they have the option of listening to my new Gut Health module. Most of them do – simply because our menopause transition is a vulnerable time for changing gut health. Oestrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, and oestradiol regulates epithelium formation and tight-junction function (Braniste, Leveque et al., 2009). It’s no surprise to me that numerous women find that they are now experiencing symptoms of irritable bowel, bloating and diarrhoea, when they haven’t experienced this before.
However, there’s more to the causes of inflammation in the gut apart from menopause hormonal changes, that we have to be mindful of as well.
Too much stress in our lives, insomnia, severe shock and trauma and conditions whereby women are exercising excessively, or doing too much fasting, and those with a high-fat diet all affect the plasma concentration of Glutamine (and L-glutamine), significantly reducing levels. Food allergies, alcohol and antibiotics all negatively affect the epithelial tight junctions too. How many of these factors can you tick off?
If you are ticking off all these factors, then they all accumulate to affect your gut health which is already compromised with your lowering oestrogen levels.
As such, the normally tight epithelial junctions become severely compromised. This causes the barrier to become impaired and inflammatory molecules, such as endotoxins, can reach the different organs via the circulation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal disorders, such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease.
Hence, one of the nutrients to check in your diet to help turn around your leaky gut is glutamine.
Glutamine has multiple functions in helping to preserve the (gut) health of mid-life and post-menopausal women.
Glutamine is an important amino acid (protein) and is best known for its ability to serve as a source of fuel for all sorts of cells in the body – from renal epithelial cells, to nerves and immune cells, Beta cells of the pancreas and of course, both skeletal and cardiac muscle cells – glutamine is involved in glucose metabolism and maintaining your body’s acid-alkaline balance of body fluids. It does this in the role that it plays in transporting nitrogen from skeletal muscles, the liver and lungs to the sites where nitrogen is utilized – the kidneys, intestine, nerve and immune cells.
For those of you also doing heavy resistance training, you may also have heard of glutamine’s role in muscle building. As a supplement for body-building, the role of glutamine has been known for years, because it serves as a necessary precursor for muscle growth. It is also known to be in many supplements marketed to athletes, because exhaustive, heavy physical training leads to a nearly 25% depletion of plasma glutamine levels. The recovery of such a glutamine deficit requires a longer period of rest and improved nutrition, as is known in the recovery of athletes experiencing over-training syndrome.
If you are an exerciser and doing heavy physical exercise (weights and/or cardio) or you have a physically active job, then please remember that during menopause when lowering oestrogen is affecting your muscles as well, this is also a vulnerable time for your gut health to become compromised. Depletion of tissue and blood glutamine compromises your body’s defense system. A salient point to note in the current pandemic.
The epithelial tight junctions constitute the major component of gut barrier function. Hence, your gut mucosa is the major site of glutamine metabolism and absorption. It therefore has a protective influence on the gastrointestinal mucosa. This is why L-glutamine/ glutamine supplements are marketed for gut health repair.
L-glutamine in supplement form raises the level of muscosal and plasma glutamine. But so too do food sources of glutamine and there are plant sources as well as animal sources.
Animal sources of glutamine include:
- Salmon and fish
- Meat and chicken
- Dairy products
Plant sources of glutamine include:
- Red cabbage, brussel sprouts
- Spinach and Kale
- Fermented foods such as Miso
As women transitioning menopause and heading into post-menopause, it is vital that we adjust our diet and lifestyle to accommodate the changes that our body is undergoing. The purpose of the MyMT programmes is for you to learn how to achieve this. We often turn to supplements and medications (and yes, these do have a role to play in helping to turn around symptoms), however, as I discovered myself, our symptoms are being looked at in isolation or being compared to the general population. But we are unique! For example, our experience of changing gut health is not only linked to menopause, but also to the enormous array of societal influences from our food production, sources of stress, exercise influences and of course, the fact that as women, there has been very little research on lifestyle that specifically addresses our needs during mid-life.
Lowering oestrogen levels in our gut epithelial lining causes the tight junctions to become more permeable to toxins in our diet and the environment. The knowledge that alcohol and the consistent consumption of low-quality, high carbohydrate processed foods low in fibre, can stress and potentially harm the gut, helps us to understand that changing our diet is important to our ongoing gut health. So, too is the adequate intake of glutamine.
Considering that the intestines depend on glutamine more than otherorgans, stress on the gut (from numerous factors that I mentioned earlier) will require much of the glutamine circulating in the body. Glutamine is recruited to maintain gut integrity, however once glutamine stores are depleted, the intestinal lining is left even more vulnerable to cumulative damage over time. Some of you may be feeling this already.
Zinc is another nutrient that helps to heal our gut lining too (those of you with Crohn’s Disease will already know this) and I talk about this fabulous nutrient in the MyMT™ Food Guide as part of my programmes. Many foods high in zinc are also high in glutamine – a double-winner in the fight against leaky gut syndrome and other gut disorders as we begin to consciously think about our health as we age.
As the chaos throughout the world continues, don’t forget that there are savings on both of my programmes when you use the promo code ATHOME21 and put this into the BUY NOW button on either of the two programmes that you would like to join me on. This makes my 12 week coaching programmes, NZ$249 instead of NZ$299*. It would be my privilege to support you and a video explaining these programmes is below.
Dr Wendy Sweet (PhD)/ Founder: My Menopause Transformation/ Member: Australasian Society of Lifestyle Medicine.
[* NZ$249/ AUS$240/ CAN$225/ US$178/ UK£128]
Braniste, V., Leveque, M., Buisson-Brenac, C., Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., & Houdeau, E. (2009). Oestradiol decreases colonic permeability through oestrogen receptor beta-mediated up-regulation of occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-A in epithelial cells. The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 13), 3317–3328. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2009.169300
Buford T. W. (2017). (Dis)Trust your gut: the gut microbiome in age-related inflammation, health, and disease. Microbiome, 5(1), 80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-017-0296-0
Deters, B. & Saleem, M. (2021). The role of glutamine in supporting gut health and neuropsychiatric factors. Food Science and Human Wellness, 10(2), 149-154 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2021.02.003.
Lenders C., Liu S., Wilmore D., Sampson L., Dougherty L., Spiegelman D., Willett W. (2009). Evaluation of a novel food composition database that includes glutamine and other amino acids derived from gene sequencing data. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;63(12):1433-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.110. Epub 2009 Sep 16. PMID: 19756030; PMCID: PMC3249386.
Grenham S., Clarke G., Cryan J., & Dinan, T. (2011). Brain–Gut–Microbe Communication in Health and Disease. Frontiers in Physiology, 2 (94), 1-15. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2011.00094
Skrovanek, S., DiGuilio, K., Bailey, R., Huntington, W., Urbas, R., Mayilvaganan, B., Mercogliano, G., & Mullin, J. M. (2014). Zinc and gastrointestinal disease. World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology, 5(4), 496–513. https://doi.org/10.4291/wjgp.v5.i4.496.