I’m so proud of Leann and how she has turned around her oestrogen dominance. I’m not entirely sure how much weight she has lost, but you can see the incredible transformation in this amazing rural woman from Australia.
Leann and hubbie, Neil, live in a beautiful location in Queensland, Australia and yes, life is busy. In fact, over the years, there has been so much going on not only with the farm, but also with bringing up kids and nowadays, caring for grandchildren. When you have a lot going on in your life, it’s easy to look after everyone else but yourself. It’s also tough, when you are preparing meals for family and farm-workers alike but the meals don’t necessarily suit your changing hormones as you move through menopause.
When you’ve developed a condition called ‘Oestrogen Dominance’ and you don’t understand that your fat cells are storing excess oestrogen, you have to be careful with foods that contain excess oestrogens. As Leann told me, “my greatest challenge was changing my diet to suit ‘me’ especially living on the farm.”
If your weight around your abdomen keeps increasing now that you are in menopause or you’ve moved into post-menopause, your fat cells are storing excess oestrogen. As such, we have to be careful about exposure to high oestrogen foods in our diet and other oestrogen-mimicking compounds that we can be exposed to in our environment. Even though our body is trying to lose oestrogen as our ovarian function declines, other sources in our environment contribute to our body taking up excess oestrogens. This includes our exposure to pesticides and chemicals.
The reason that we need to be careful about our fat-storage mechanisms, is that fat is metabolically active and oestrogen has a role to play in this. Our fat cells love to store oestrogen and because women have enzymes that make them store fat around their abdominal region – which is part of our ancient ‘survival’ physiology – mid-life is a time of our lives, when we become more vulnerable to a condition called oestrogen dominance.
But fat-storage is not the only part of the menopause weight-gain story. Our liver health matters too. If the liver is fatty or inflamed, it can’t clear excess oestrogens. For women on higher doses of oestrogen in their HRT, this includes excess oestrogen provided from this source.
When our liver can’t metabolise excess oestrogens effectively, our fat cells store these additional oestrogenic compounds as we move through menopause. Hence, oestrogen becomes the ‘dominant’ hormone in relation to it’s opposing hormone, progesterone. This makes us ‘oestrogen dominant’ and as a consequence of this, progesterone levels can become low.
What happens then, is what happens to millions of women around the world in menopause – including myself and Leann. Progesterone becomes too low in contrast to oestrogen, so we feel bloated, heavy, sore and uncomfortable. It’s exhausting carrying all that excess weight around too. Like me, Leann’s breast size was increasing. With breast tissue have lots of oestrogen receptors, they can become swollen, heavy and uncomfortable. For those of us who enjoy exercise, heavy breasts and increasing belly-fat, make exercise that much harder to tolerate. Don’t even mention the expense with having to purchase new bras.
When we store excess oestrogens in our fat cells (including liver and breast tissue) then we can develop a condition called oestrogen dominance. What this means is that oestrogen becomes the ‘dominant’ hormone to the detriment of progesterone as we move through menopause and into post-menopause.
But there’s more to the oestrogen dominance story and this is my greatest concern for women moving through menopause into post-menopause. It’s not just the fat cells in the abdominal area expanding with excess oestrogen – fat cells are expanding around the heart muscle as well. This is known as paracardial fat and this type of fat increases our risk for heart disease as we age. Furthermore, the layer of para-cardial fat increasess the stress on our heart, especially if we aren’t sleeping. It’s a double-whammy of health chaos as we get older and it’s important to turn this around.
As I slowly pieced together the menopause-misery jigsaw I pulled together cardio-vascular research, diabetes and heart-health research as well as physical activity and longevity studies and of course nutrition research that was focused on mid-life women’s health.
The more I read, the more I began to understand that the greatest concern for women as they age, in terms of their expanding waistline and belly-fat, wasn’t necessarily to do with hormonal changes (this is a normal life-stage which I describe as the ‘book-end’ to puberty). Instead, there are a cocktail of changes that relate to our changing physiology in menopause and the accumulation of inflammation that has been building up for decades.
When we aren’t sleeping, when our joints feel sore and we are losing precious muscle and becoming oestrogen dominant, then our metabolism changes too. It’s why I loved this insight from research out of the Australian National University, recently published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. If I had this research a few years ago, it would have saved a lot of lonely research of my own. In a review of studies that included more than 1 million pre- and post-menopausal women, the researchers learnt what I and many other women, have discovered in real life – that our waist circumference increases during and after menopause and as such, there is a shift in our metabolism, which can send us into worsening health with age.
“It’s important to understand how women’s bodies change as they age because women have higher rates of some diseases than men”, said Ananthan Ambikairajah, a PhD candidate at the Australian National University, who led the study. “The implications are important, because central fat has been linked with dementia risk, and central fat is linked with cardiovascular disease risk. As such, more attention needs to be paid to central fat accumulation, because that’s the bad stuff,” mentioned Ambikairajah.
Every extra kilo of weight is an added burden on your joints, heart, liver, cholesterol, muscle function and insulin levels as you age. That’s what was concerning Leann too.
It’s also the reason that I know that many of you can’t do the exercise necessary to ward off changing heart-health and Type 2 diabetes. Whilst there is an emphasis on more vigorous cardio and strength training as we age, in order to battle the bulge, I know myself that we are often too exhausted from not sleeping to tolerate this type of exercise. That’s how I felt myself – and for someone who has been at the forefront of the exercise industry in New Zealand, I was as disheartened as many of you may be that exercise was increasingly uncomfortable.
As I often say in my online 12 week Transform Me programme – menopause itself isn’t the issue. This is a natural life stage that we all go through. The issue is that we are ageing. And because we are ageing, we are losing our precious muscle and when this happens, we gain fat, especially the fat that is centralised around the abdomen. This abdominal weight gain increases oestrogen dominacne, which then changes our heart and metabolic health. That’s why, in post-menopause women, the risk for cardio-vascular disease (heart attacks and strokes) is higher for women than men.
Incredibly, because of our oestrogen dominance, sleep problems and muscle loss as we move into post-menopause, we can add 1-2 kg a week during menopause.
The women who join me on their online weight loss course over 12 weeks (or you can take longer) MyMT Transform Me programme, discover that turning around post-menopause belly-fat has nothing to do with hours spent exercising, or low carb, high protein, high fat, hard-to-adhere to, popular diets. It’s all to do with sleeping all night and taming our oestrogen dominance through changing our choices and routines that have been set for years. When we know what to do however, this allows us, first and foremost, to stop gaining fat. We can’t lose weight until we stop gaining.
Following that, we need to discover how to re-balance our blood-sugar levels and reduce the impact of insulin, our blood sugar regulation hormone. When insulin is out of balance, then this very quickly sends us into more fatigue and weight gain – [see my next article about Insulin Resistance]. This means that we also need to focus on giving ourselves a liver rescue so that excess oestrogens are metabolised.
As we go into post-menopause, our body doesn’t need as much oestrogen any more. In fact, it’s the excess oestrogen that’s can be the problem with post-menopause weight gain as well. If we have high levels of oestrogens in our diet and through environmental exposure (called ‘xeno-oestrogens’), then our fat cells (including liver fat storage cells) store the excess. Our fat cells love oestrogen and store this readily. With the extra fat-cell storage of oestrogen, this becomes the ‘dominant hormone’ and if you are moving through menopause, then you may just find that you become low in progesterone too. Low progesterone is also the cause of many known symptoms of menopause when we develop oestrogen dominance.
I never knew about oestrogen dominance when I went into menopause – nor did I realise how much muscle can be lost when we are too exhausted to exercise properly and aren’t sleeping. These two factors combined are a menopause and post-menopause weight gain nightmare but there are others that I’ve listed below too.
So, if you are as bewildered as Leann and I were about your menopause weight gain, then here’s the real (and new) science to understand:
- Not sleeping increases your blood-sugar hormone called insulin – both overnight and during the day. The role of insulin is to shift glucose around your body, especially to your brain, liver and muscle cells where it gets stored in your cells. But when we don’t sleep, our blood pressure and heart rate remain higher during the day, which in turn increases two hormones which impact weight gain – insulin and our chronic stress hormone, called cortisol. To lose belly-fat and change our risk for Type 2 diabetes in post-menopause, both insulin and cortisol need to be low, especially at night. If they remain high, they interfere with the production of your sleep hormone called ‘melatonin‘. As we prepare to go to sleep and stay asleep, then melatonin levels should be as high as they can be. This is why I teach women what to do to achieve the right balance between melatonin and insulin production as part of the first module they listen to in their private learning area on the 12 week MyMT Transform Me programme. If you want to start losing weight, you must sleep.
2. In post-menopause, testosterone production increases if you still have your ovaries – this disrupts insulin and cortisol. Your body is amazing. Never forget that. As women going into post-menopause, if we still have our ovaries, we are producing some testosterone. We all have varying degrees of testosterone in us and some of you stronger, larger ladies with an adrenal or pituitary body-type might produce more as well. But levels of this hormone go UP when you are feeling stressed, causing even more production of your stress hormones and the one that we don’t want called cortisol. The powerful combination of higher testosterone and high cortisol keeps your belly fat going up. Add to that not sleeping and fat cells then store the extra testosterone which your adrenal glands are busily making because you are feeling stressed!
Testosterone is an androgen, or sex-related hormone. It is produced in your ovaries, adrenal glands and fat cells and in women, testosterone contributes to over 200 actions in our body, from muscle development, to growing facial hair on our chins, to influencing anger and frustration. In natural menopause, androgen levels don’t suddenly drop, but at this time of life, you are producing about 50% less than in puberty, which is often the cause of women losing their libido and mojo at this time as well!
But there is something else affecting your weight gain during menopause as well – your loss of muscle. I call it, the ‘forgotten factor’ in understanding menopause weight gain.
3. Muscle loss in post-menopause contributes to lowered metabolism and fat gain. When we lose oestrogen as a normal outcome of our changing biology, we also lose muscle size and density. It’s a condition called sarcopenia, which is a fancy name for muscle loss. If we aren’t sleeping, then the muscle loss speeds up as your metabolism changes because you aren’t getting the benefit of muscle recovery overnight – even for those of you doing weights. When we don’t sleep however, as I said earlier, one of our chronic stress hormones, called cortisol remains high. One of the outcomes, is that as you lose muscle density, then you also lose the number and size of mitochondrial cells. These beautiful cells store oxygen and this is where fat is burned. In menopause and as a natural part of our biological ageing, we lose precious mitochondrial cells and this wrecks havoc on menopause fat-burning potential. It’s why your fitness sessions, diets , HRT and intermittent fasting may no longer be working for you in menopause. Jo discovered this too.
All of these factors combined –
- not sleeping,
- increased insulin,
- high stress levels,
- testosterone changes and
- loss of muscle tissue –
have the greatest impact on our changing health and weight gain as we move into post-menopause.
If this is you, then will you let me help you? The 12 week online programme is everything I needed to know when my health and weight began to change as I moved through menopause. It would be my privilege to help you too. To learn more, my video is below. I would love you to listen to it sometime.